Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood vessels and carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes from them. Cardiovascular diseases are conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels and include arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease, heart valve disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, shock, endocarditis, diseases of the aorta and its branches, disorders of the peripheral vascular system, and congenital heart disease.Related Products:cardiovascular drugs.
For the treatment ofl some diseases of the urinary system.
Different specialists treat urinary system ailments. Nephrologists treat kidney diseases, while urologists treat problems with the urinary tract, including the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder and urethra, according to the American Urological Association (AUA). Urologists also treat the male reproductive organs, while gynecologists often treat urinary diseases or disorders in females, including yeast infections. Nephrologists and urologists often work with endocrinologists or oncologists, depending on the disease.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur when bacteria enters the urinary tract and can affect the urethra, bladder or even the kidneys. While UTIs are more common in women, they can occur in men. UTIs are typically treated with antibiotics, according to Dr. Oscar Aguirre, a urogynecologist in Denver.
Incontinence is another common disease of the urinary system. It can come in the form of a pelvic prolapse, which can result in leakage and can be the result of a vaginal
delivery. Then there is the overactive bladder, [which we see a lot and is not related to having children or trauma," Aguirre said. A third condition involves overflow, in which the bladder does not completely empty.
Some common treatments involve medications, physical therapy and pelvic mesh surgery, Aguirre noted. Vaginal laser surgery is also becoming a viable treatment option, he explained. [In another 10 to 15 years, vaginal laser surgery will be another common option for the treatment of urinary conditions."
Interstitial cystitis (IC), also called painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic bladder condition, primarily in women, that causes bladder pressure and pain and, sometimes, pelvic pain to varying degrees, according to the Mayo Clinic. It can cause bladder scarring, and can make the bladder less elastic. While the cause isn`t known, many people with the condition also have a defect in their epithelium, the protective lining of the bladder.
Prostatitis is a swelling of the prostate gland and, therefore, can only occur in men. Often caused by advanced age, symptoms include urinary urgency and frequency, pelvic pain and pain during urination, the Mayo Clinic noted.
Kidney stones are clumps of calcium oxalate that can be found anywhere in the urinary tract. Kidney stones form when chemicals in the urine become concentrated enough to form a solid mass, according to the Cleveland Clinic. They can cause pain in the back and sides, as well as blood in the urine. Many kidney stones can be treated with minimally invasive therapy, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, which disintegrates the kidney stones with shock waves.
Kidney failure, also called renal failure and chronic kidney disease, can be a temporary (often acute) condition or can become a chronic condition resulting in the inability of the kidneys to filter waste from the blood. Other conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, can cause chronic kidney disease, according to the Mayo Clinic. Acute cases may be caused by trauma or other damage, and may improve over time with treatment. However, renal disease may lead to chronic kidney failure, which may require dialysis treatments or even a kidney transplant.
Bladder cancer is diagnosed in about 75,000 Americans each year and is more frequent in men and the elderly according to the American Cancer Society. The symptoms, including back or pelvic pain, difficulty urinating and urgent/and or frequent urination, mimic other diseases or disorders of the urinary system.