Relating to thecirculatory system, which comprises the heart and blood vessels and carriesnutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide andother wastes from them. Cardiovascular diseases are conditions that affect theheart and blood vessels and include arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease,heart valve disease, arrhythmia, heart failure, hypertension, orthostatichypotension, shock, endocarditis, diseases of the aorta and its branches, disordersof the peripheral vascular system, and congenital heart disease.Related Products:cardiovascular drugs.
For the treatmentofl some diseases of the urinary system.
Differentspecialists treat urinary system ailments. Nephrologists treat kidney diseases,while urologists treat problems with the urinary tract, including the kidneys,adrenal glands, ureters, bladder and urethra, according to the AmericanUrological Association (AUA). Urologists also treat the male reproductiveorgans, while gynecologists often treat urinary diseases or disorders infemales, including yeast infections. Nephrologists and urologists often workwith endocrinologists or oncologists, depending on the disease.
Urinary tractinfections (UTIs) occur when bacteria enters the urinary tract and can affectthe urethra, bladder or even the kidneys. While UTIs are more common in women,they can occur in men. UTIs are typically treated with antibiotics, accordingto Dr. Oscar Aguirre, a urogynecologist in Denver.
Incontinence is anothercommon disease of the urinary system. It can come in the form of a pelvicprolapse, which can result in leakage and can be the result of a vaginal
delivery. Then there is the overactive bladder, [which we see a lot and is notrelated to having children or trauma," Aguirre said. A third condition involvesoverflow, in which the bladder does not completely empty.
Some commontreatments involve medications, physical therapy and pelvic mesh surgery,Aguirre noted. Vaginal laser surgery is also becoming a viable treatmentoption, he explained. [In another 10 to 15 years, vaginal laser surgery will beanother common option for the treatment of urinary conditions."
Interstitialcystitis (IC), also called painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic bladdercondition, primarily in women, that causes bladder pressure and pain and,sometimes, pelvic pain to varying degrees, according to the Mayo Clinic. It cancause bladder scarring, and can make the bladder less elastic. While the causeisn`t known, many people with the condition also have a defect in theirepithelium, the protective lining of the bladder.
Prostatitis is aswelling of the prostate gland and, therefore, can only occur in men. Oftencaused by advanced age, symptoms include urinary urgency and frequency, pelvicpain and pain during urination, the Mayo Clinic noted.
Kidney stones areclumps of calcium oxalate that can be found anywhere in the urinary tract. Kidneystones form when chemicals in the urine become concentrated enough to form asolid mass, according to the Cleveland Clinic. They can cause pain in the backand sides, as well as blood in the urine. Many kidney stones can be treatedwith minimally invasive therapy, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy,which disintegrates the kidney stones with shock waves.
Kidney failure,also called renal failure and chronic kidney disease, can be a temporary (oftenacute) condition or can become a chronic condition resulting in the inabilityof the kidneys to filter waste from the blood. Other conditions, such asdiabetes and hypertension, can cause chronic kidney disease, according to theMayo Clinic. Acute cases may be caused by trauma or other damage, and mayimprove over time with treatment. However, renal disease may lead to chronickidney failure, which may require dialysis treatments or even a kidneytransplant.
Bladder cancer isdiagnosed in about 75,000 Americans each year and is more frequent in men andthe elderly according to the American Cancer Society. The symptoms, includingback or pelvic pain, difficulty urinating and urgent/and or frequent urination,mimic other diseases or disorders of the urinary system.