Vitamin A:Retinol. Carotene compounds responsible for transmitting light sensation in theretina of the eye. Deficiency leads to night blindness.
Beta carotene: Anantioxidant which protects cells against oxidation damage that can lead to cancer.Beta carotene is converted, as needed, to vitamin A. Food sources of betacarotene include vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach and otherleafy green vegetables; and fruit such as cantaloupes and apricots. Excessivecarotene in the diet can temporarily yellow the skin, a condition calledcarotenemia, commonly seen in infants fed largely mushed carrots.
Vitamin B1:Thiamin, acts as a coenzyme in body metabolism. Deficiency leads to beriberi, adisease of the heart and nervous system.
Vitamin B2:Riboflavin, essential for the reactions of coenzymes. Deficiency causesinflammation of the lining of the mouth and skin.
Vitamin B3:Niacin, an essential part of coenzymes of body metabolism. Deficiency causesinflammation of the skin, vagina, rectum and mouth, as well as mental slowing.
Vitamin B6:Pyridoxine, a cofactor for enzymes. Deficiency leads to inflammation of theskin and mouth, nausea, vomiting, dizziness , weakness and anemia.
Folate (folicacid): Folic acid is an important factor in nucleic acid synthesis (the geneticmaterial). Folate deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia.
Vitamin B12: Anessential factor in nucleic acid synthesis (the genetic material of all cells).Deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia, as can be seen in pernicious anemia.
Vitamin C:Ascorbic acid, important in the synthesis of collagen, the framework proteinfor tissues of the body. Deficiency leads to scurvy, characterized by fragilecapillaries, poor wound healing, and bone deformity in children.
Vitamin D: Asteroid vitamin which promotes absorption and metabolism of calcium andphosphorus. Under normal conditions of sunlight exposure, no dietarysupplementation is necessary because sunlight promotes adequate vitamin Dsynthesis in the skin. Deficiency can lead to osteomalacia in adults and bonedeformity (rickets) in children.
Vitamin E:Deficiency can lead to anemia.
Vitamin K: Anessential factor in the formation of blood clotting factors. Deficiency canlead to abnormal bleeding.
For the treatmentof nutritional disease, any of the nutrient-related diseases and conditionsthat cause illness in humans. They may include deficiencies or excesses in thediet, obesity and eating disorders, and chronic diseases such as cardiovasculardisease, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Nutritional diseases alsoinclude developmental abnormalities that can be prevented by diet, hereditarymetabolic disorders that respond to dietary treatment, the interaction of foodsand nutrients with drugs, food allergies and intolerances, and potentialhazards in the food supply. All of these categories are described in thisarticle. For a discussion of essential nutrients, dietary recommendations, andhuman nutritional needs and concerns throughout the life cycle, see nutrition,human.
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